Human type A gene was created by recombination of the type B and O genes

A friend of mine told me about an interesting paper that says that the human type A gene was created by recombination of the type B and O genes.

Takashi Kitano, Antoine Blancher, Naruya Saitou. The Functional A Allele Was Resurrected via Recombination in the Human ABO Blood Group Gene. 

Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 29, Issue 7, July 2012, Pages 1791–1796, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss021


Functional A and B alleles are distinguished at two critical sites in exon 7 of the human ABO blood group gene. The most frequent nonfunctional O alleles have one-base deletion in exon 6 producing a frameshift, and it has the A type signature in two critical sites in exon 7. Previous studies indicated that B and O alleles were derived from A allele in human lineage. In this study, we conducted a phylogenetic network analysis using six representative haplotypes: A101, A201, B101, O01, O02, and O09. The result indicated that the A allele, possibly once extinct in the human lineage a long time ago, was resurrected by a recombination between B and O alleles less than 300,000 years ago.


Is Elon Musk Type AB?

 I found a site that states that Elon Musk is Type AB!

The information is from Wikipedia, but when I checked his blood type, it didn't say anything.

I also checked with Perplexity to be sure, but it also said his blood type was unknown.

Irritated, I checked on Bing (ChatGPT-4)...

Apparently, Wikipedia said he is Type AB.

I wonder which site is true?


Genome analysis of Beethoven

A team of researchers from Cambridge University and others have conducted a DNA test on Beethoven, but unfortunately, no blood type has been released....

Reference URLs:

Genomic analyses of hair from Ludwig van Beethoven: Current Biology

Beethoven's DNA

1st ever analysis of Beethoven's DNA sheds light on the mystery of his death | Live Science


New paper from the ABO Center

A new paper from Masayuki Kanazawa, the ABO Center.

It is estimated that genetic factors are responsible for approximately 30%-60% of an individual’s personality. However, statistical analyses have yet to demonstrate a significant and consistent relationship between personality tests and genetic factors. Conversely, a significant portion of individuals in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan believe that there is a linkage between ABO blood type, which is determined genetically, and personality. This pilot study analyzed data from a large-scale survey (N=2,887) using a combination of traditional statistical methods and AI to examine this relationship. The results indicated the relationship between ABO blood type and self-reported personality traits on several single-question items, in accordance with expected outcomes. These findings suggest that this relationship may extend beyond ABO blood type and personality to encompass other inherited characteristics. The influence of the level of interest on personality and was also discussed.

MBTI and Blood Type

 Sorry, Japanese only.

People with the Same Blood Type are More Likely to Get married?

After analyzing data from 1 million Chinese, it seems that people with the same blood type are more likely to get married.

It is very hard to believe for me....


Most of Billionaires are O?

 According to this video, most of billionares are O.
你的血型決定你的命運,O型血最有錢?AB型血最稀少? | 老高與小茉 Mr & Mrs Gao

Mark Zuckerberg O - Facebook
Steve Jobs O - Apple
Bill Gates O - Microsoft
Masayoshi Son O - Softbank
Jeff Bezos B - Amazon
David Koch A - Koch Industries
Sam Walton O - Walmart
Amancio Ortega O - ZARA
Warren Buffett O - Berkshire Hathaway
Jack Ma O - Alibaba
Liu Qiangdong O - JD
Ma Huateng O - Tencent

Human type A gene was created by recombination of the type B and O genes

A friend of mine told me about an interesting paper that says that the human type A gene was created by recombination of the type B and O ge...